Nature and Freedom

Jindřich Karásek

The aim of this essay is to compare the positions of three important philosophers regarding the question of the evolution of nature. They share the idea that the evolution of nature is a process of spiritual emancipation, bringing forth organisms with a growing capacity of reacting to outward influences. This process is concluded by the production of a being endowed with intellect; in it, not only that capacity reaches its maximum, but it is also capable of reflecting on this capacity and of taking distance from it. The basic expression of this reflective faculty is the development of language, society and the state.